Update from Addis Ababa: Youth aging out of orphanage care

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August 13, 2013
Addis Ababa

This past Saturday, Mikiyas and I wrapped up the last set of interviews here in Addis Ababa.  In total, we talked to 58 individuals from 9 different organizations.  Their stories reflect a vast range of experiences, with some being very successful in their independent life and some still struggling to find work and shelter 8 years after leaving care.  For some interviews, we were able to go in depth and hear very personal stories of the transition process. All of these interviews have given us an anecdotal slice of the breadth and depth of challenges youth face once they leave care.

Our last interview was at the headquarters of Service In Mission (SIM). The clinic director, Mary Vanderwal, has been doing volunteer work with young men who aged out of a large orphanage in Addis.  Because of her established relationship with the boys, we expected a good turnout of around 8 to 10 participants.  The line taxi pulled up with 18 men, aged 22-29, ready to talk about their experiences.  Thank goodness we had enough food!  Because we had so many participants, Mikiyas and I used the large-group interview model we developed for IOFA’s summer research.  A young Ethiopian theology student, Tseyone, was also present and translated for me as Mikiyas facilitated the discussion.

“I found my aunt and uncle, but they wouldn’t let me stay in their house or give me money for my education.”

Mikiyas first asked about the general experience of these young men as they aged out of care.  They said that the orphanage gave them a lump sum of money and then basically turned them loose.  The boys had no idea how to budget or manage finances, and this money was gone within a month, without the boys securing a job our housing.  Many of them lived with friends or in khat houses*, which now rent rooms. The boys may have completed their public education, but received no vocational training or support to attend a university or college.

Some of the participants discussing the challenges they faced during transition

Some of the participants discussing the challenges they faced during transition

Mikiyas then broke the boys into 3 small groups and asked them to discuss three different topics: the primary challenges they faced once they left the orphanage, how they managed to provide for themselves, and the kind of support available to them once they left.  The young men were instructed to write down their experiences and elect a representative to report back to the larger group.  This is what we heard:

Primary Challenges:
“Because they know we are from the orphanage, the society doesn’t trust us.  They think that we are all criminals.”  “Landlords won’t rent to us, businesses won’t employ us.”  “We pretend that we have families so that we can get work, but someone always finds out.  Once they know we are from the orphanage, they will find a reason to fire us.”  “We can’t even get an ID card*.  Without an ID card, how are we supposed to get a job?”

“Because they know we are from the orphanage, the society doesn’t trust us.  They think that we are all criminals.”

Self-Sufficiency:
“We can get some work in day labor.”  “We stay with friends, mostly other boys from the orphanage.”  “We don’t have a choice where we stay.  I have to be careful because I can’t always trust the people I stay with.  I have had many things stolen.”  “We don’t know how to cook, and we don’t always have a kitchen.  Mostly, I eat food I buy on the street.”

Family and Social Support:
“Our families don’t help us.”  “I found my aunt and uncle, but they wouldn’t let me stay in their house or give me money for my education.”  “Our brothers are in the orphanage, or are outside with us. They are our only family.”  “We try to support each other, but none of us has much to give the others.”  “Our family didn’t welcome us.  Society didn’t welcome us.  Only addiction welcomed us.”

“We try to support each other, but none of us has much to give the others.”

After these presentations, Mikiyas brought out a poster-board with a drawing of a soccer goal.  The goal, he explained, stood for success in their independent life.  We then passed out small paper soccer balls and blue sticky notes.  The boys were instructed to write a goal that they had for their lives on the sticky notes, attach the note to a soccer ball and place the ball either on the poster (if the goal had been achieved) or outside the poster (if their attempts had failed so far).  After the boys “scored” their goals, we handed out red sticky notes and green sticky notes.  The red sticky notes were for the balls outside the poster—those goals that had not been achieved.  The green sticky notes were for the goals that had been realized.  On the red sticky notes, the boys were instructed to write the obstacles that kept them from achieving each of their goals.  On the green sticky notes, they were asked to write down the support that made their achievements possible.  They then were told to pair the red and green sticky notes to the appropriate soccer balls.

Writing goals and placing them on the poster (successful) or outside (unsuccessful)

Writing goals and placing them on the poster (successful) or outside (unsuccessful)

Many of the balls outside of the poster had to do with finding stable work, having a place to stay, and having a family one day.  The challenges that were most often named stemmed from systemic issues:  there weren’t enough jobs available, the boys don’t have proper vocational training, etc.  Many of the balls on the poster (achievements) were social in nature—many had found friends outside the orphanage, and some had even found romantic partners.  These successes were attributed to the boys’ own personalities, patience, and hard work.

After the interview session ended, the boys were invited to lunch in the common area.  We went through 25 injera, 2 pots of lamb stew, and 2 big bowls of vegetable wot.  All of the participants told us that they found the interview process extremely helpful.  It was good, they said, to have somewhere safe to go and discuss their lives and the challenges they face.  Usually, they only come together in bars and khat houses.  They also appreciated that people were actually interested in their experience and that work was being done to help other children.  “Our lives are difficult, they will always be difficult,” one young man said.  “But it is important that our younger brothers [still in the orphanage] don’t have the same experience.”

Sarah Lyn Jones
Transitions Initiative Intern

*Khat houses are places in Addis where young men can smoke shisha & marijuana, drink, and chew khat.  These establishments often offer a place to sleep and some food for a low price because they make money on the addictive substances they sell.
**In order to get an ID card in Ethiopia, you have to have a permanent residence and someone to vouch for you, to provide a “guarantee.”  The person who provides the guarantee must also have an ID card and be willing to have some sort of legal connection to you.  Because these young men don’t have either, they cannot get an ID card.  Without an ID card, they cannot enroll in educational/vocational programs or apply for the majority of jobs.

Support Sarah’s work in Addis Ababa at http://www.gofundme.com/Transitions-Initiative

Foster care youth vulnerable to human trafficking

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Operation Cross Country VII, the FBI-led minor sex trafficking sting late last month, shocked Americans as it exposed the reality of human trafficking in the United States. Even more frightening has been the realization that many of the exploited youth identified in the sting were recruited directly out of the foster care system. [1]

What about the situation of youth “in the system” creates such vulnerability?

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There are numerous factors.

Each year, more than 26,000 American youth age out of care. [2] Understandably, many identify their main challenge as not having a familial support system to back them when they have a need. Whereas youth growing up in consistent family settings have adults present to provide advice, support, and resources, youth in foster care are often accustomed to changing living situations and will likely not maintain a lifelong connection with any of their temporary guardians.

Foster care youth also may not have been given consistent, unconditional acceptance and support. They are given new rules and expectations in each household they enter and in each agency from which they receive support. Accustomed to a checklist mentality of “performance”, one youth puts it, “you grow up sort of having to audition – for everything.” [3]

“You grow up sort of having to audition – for everything.”

Traffickers recognize that youth with this background are accustomed to their needs being met on a conditional basis, and that they have a hunger for unconditional acceptance. Traffickers promise a bed to sleep in each night, all physical needs to be met, and intense emotional connection. Their promises of love coupled with demands for trafficked youth to perform sex acts or provide free labor create an intricate web of emotional manipulation while meeting the need for love and support.

Traffickers also exploit the often-rocky backgrounds of foster care youth. Most of the youth who enter the foster care system have put in the State’s care because of a situation of abuse or neglect at home. The psychological and emotional effects of these experiences make these youth particularly susceptible to the abuses of traffickers. The normalization of sexual violence and the unmet need for nurturance and support increase the chances that a potential trafficking victim can be psychologically coerced into compliance with a trafficker.

Youth who are aging out of foster care also may be more vulnerable to traffickers because of financial need. They must find a way to support themselves building from the ground up. Nearly half do not finish high school, and homelessness is often a problem upon aging out. [3] Without a financial or housing safety net in place, they often operate in short-term mode, making ends meet day to day with little flexibility to invest in the future. As one youth who ended up homeless put it, “Life hits you hard after you get out. You feel like the whole world is against you.” [4] Promises of love, emotional support, financial support, and housing are hard to pass up for youth who may not be offered these basic needs elsewhere.

“Life hits you hard after you get out. You feel like the whole world is against you.”

Moreover, when youth age out of State care, they often drop off the radar completely. The State is no longer responsible for them and there may not be the long-term support of family or friends looking out for them. Given how often youth in foster care are moved around, no one may show alarm the moment an aged-out youth goes missing. No one is held accountable for them and traffickers take advantage of this vulnerability.

These issues are complex and are just the tip of the iceberg. Unfortunately, it is not only in the United States that youth in alternative care face extreme vulnerability to human trafficking and other dangerous situations and exploitation.

The Transitions Initiative in Ethiopia marks IOFA’s commitment to supporting youth aging out of alternative care and building awareness of their situations upon leaving care. Keep an eye out for IOFA intern Sarah’s reports on her research this summer with these youth, learning what they have to say about their experiences aging out of care.

Alexa Schnieders
Program Development Intern

[1] http://www.kspr.com/news/kspr-alarming-number-of-children-lured-into-sex-trafficking-come-right-out-of-the-foster-system-20130801,0,2909596.story
[2] http://www.childrensrights.org/issues-resources/foster-care/facts-about-foster-care/
[3] http://wesa.fm/post/facing-new-life-after-aging-out-foster-care-system
[4] http://www.the-review.com/editors%20pick/2013/08/05/ohio-program-readies-foster-children-to-live-alone
Image: http://www.lollydaskal.com/leadership/stay-vulnerable-even-when-it-hurts/

Let Them Live Easy

Young adults Tony Facello (green) and Cornelius Carter work with a group as they try and move a ball without touching it, during an activity at the 10th Annual Utah Youth Summit at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City Wednesday, August 1, 2012.  Approximately 200 youth, ages 14 and older - who are in foster care or have ged outof foster care, will gather together for two days to learn the skills needed to transition into adult living. (Brian Nicholson, Deseret News)

Less than a week ago, 200 Utah youth from the foster care system gathered as a collective force for the 10th Annual Utah Youth Summit, each individual met with respect and an unspoken understanding.  The adolescents, ages 14 and older, were youth who would soon be or had already aged out of the foster care system, and shared their stories of struggle and success in order to tackle the heavy topic of life after care.  Taking place on the University of Utah campus, education and inspiration were energy in the atmosphere.  The youth were provided with hope through discussion and activities, bonded by their sameness and beautifully diverse in their differences.  The possibility of a future was revealed in the eyes of one another.  The Summit showcased the strength of adolescent minds brought together and the value of an unrelenting support system that makes individuals feel at home no matter where they are.

Camil Sanchez-Palumbo
IOFA Program Development Intern

Pennsylvania Budget Supports Youth Aging Out of Foster Care

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“Young adults aging out of the foster-care system will gain more support under Gov. Tom Corbett’s 2012-13 budget, which extended adoption and guardian subsidies for three years and expanded the eligibility criteria for young adults who can remain in care until they are 21.”

-Marion Callahan

Hats off.

PA Budget Extends Support to Youth Aging Out of Foster Care

Camil Sanchez-Palumbo
IOFA Program Development Intern

Project Prepare Launched!

Take a virtual trip to Ethiopia where IOFA staff is working to implement Project Prepare!

As part of the Transitions Initiative, Project Prepare is near and dear to our hearts.

Follow the interns in Ethiopia at IOFA Talk and stay tuned for more news from IOFA.

Camil Sanchez-Palumbo
IOFA Project Development Intern

Replacing Shame with Support for Young Adult Orphans in Kenya

For Kenyan youth that have aged out of care as orphans, marginalization and stigmatization are like toxins running in the water–each type of treatment both harmful and ever-present.  Educating the country to dilute the country’s deluded notions of orphaned youth has been an arduous process; one that Catherine Gitona, a Kenyan adult orphan herself, has willingly taken on.

In her mission to provide assistance to the population of unappreciated young adult orphans, Gitona created Scars to Stars, a foundation that offers support groups to adult orphans between the ages of 15 and 35.  As an example of the difficulties aged-out youth orphans face, these individuals are often expected to “fend for themselves” as they are seen as mature enough to sort out any personal, financial, or health issues that might pose risk.  Worsening matters are the labels practically branded upon these older orphans, forcing them into shame and excluding them from equitable treatment and participation in society.  “Vandal.”  “Beggar.”  “Prostitute.”  Gitona and Scars to Stars are working to wipe these pejorative labels from Kenyan society’s lexicon, giving orphaned youth a fair start in certainly unfair circumstances.

As a support group, Scars to Stars presents a comfortable environment in which active members are free to participate in everything from games and singing to discussion of heavier topics such as HIV, rape, or mistreatment in their relatives’ homes.  Such a support system is unavailable for many members in their daily lives.  Gitonga explains, “Most of them are void of emotional support, they go through a lot of stress… So it helps in so, so many ways… It just makes you brighten up, it just gives you this confidence in life.”  The foundation exemplifies the decency and humanity each orphaned youth deserves, especially those aging out of care and entering a life of new responsibilities.  With Gitona’s efforts and those of the world community, orphaned youth aging out of care will increasingly have the freedom to make of their lives whatever they desire, emerging from the murky waters as rejuvenated adults.

Camil Sanchez-Palumbo
IOFA Project Development Intern

Welcome

As we officially unveil our blog, all of us at the International Organization for Adolescents (IOFA) would like to welcome you to the Transitions Initiative Worldwide Network.  The issue of orphaned youth aging out of care delivers great impact across the continents and, as we’ve learned throughout our work, must be confronted with vigilance and cooperation.  Orphaned youth are a vulnerable population at any age and must be offered thought and support in their transition from care systems to lives built from their own means.  IOFA understands that such a life event is significant in every way, requiring the proper physical, psychological, and economic resources, and we also know the struggle to generate and combine each of these factors.  For this reason, IOFA hopes the Transitions Initiative Worldwide Network will provide insight on developments in youth aging out of care.  We aim to unite members from across the world in our mission to provide invaluable resources to this affected adolescent population.  Join the circle.  Our hands are open.

Camil Sanchez-Palumbo,
IOFA Project Development Intern